Sunday, May 24, 2020

A Freudian Analysis of Voltaires Candide Essay - 1649 Words

A Freudian Analysis of Voltaires Candide In Civilization and its Discontents, Sigmund Freud refers to the important role that love plays in the world of Man. Love certainly plays an important role in Voltaires Candide; throughout Candides journeys, a constant factor is his love for Lady Cunegonde and his desire to be with her. Freud writes the way of life which makes love the centre of everything [...] comes naturally to all of us, (Freud, p. 29). Candides love for Cunegonde is the driving force of his life from the moment they are parted at the beginning of the novel until they are bonded in marriage at the end. Throughout his experiences, Candide continues to think about Cunegonde. Even after narrowly surviving†¦show more content†¦50). Candides love for Cunegonde was clearly not accepted by her family. When Candide expresses his desire to marry Cunegonde to her brother, the Baron strikes him across the face for suggesting such a hot-headed notion, (Voltaire, p. 67). To the Baron it is completely absurd that Candide, who is of lower birth, should think of marrying his sister, who has seventy-two quarterings in her coat of arms, (Voltaire, p. 67). Candide promptly kills the Baron for disapproving of his love for the mans sister. Candides reactions are hasty, but they are made by a man in love; indeed, his only explanation for his two earlier killings was simply a jealous man in love doesnt know what he is doing, (Voltaire, pp. 45-46). Throughout history battles have been started by the impulsive actions of a jealous lover. Kingdoms have risen and fallen for loves desires. Like Candide, a man in love is often blinded to his actions until after the deed. When Candide is sure that he is going to meet death at the hands of the Oreillons, his first thought is of having lost Cunegonde. I must say it is very cruel to have lost Lady Cunegonde and to be skewered by the Oreillons, (Voltaire, p. 71). Here is a man who is about to lose his life, and he feels that the loss of his loved one is equal to the loss he is about to suffer. At the height of being in love the boundary

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Effective Communication in a Workplace - 635 Words

Effective communication in a business Student’s Name: Professor’s Name: Institution: Date of Submission: Describe a time when you experienced effective communication in a business environment. Effective communication involves knowing the audience and using appropriate to communicate the intended message. I experienced effective communication at the workplace whereby the manager delegated the role of decision making to the employees. The manager emphasized that employees were to communicate with each other and discuss on the best decisions for the firm to achieve its goals and objectives. The employees were to form teams and discuss decisions regarding various departments in order to forward them to the top management for†¦show more content†¦Most employees, customers and the management of the organization were aware of the decisions and various messages sent from different departments. Discuss at least three (3) reasons why you perceived the communication to be effective, and explain the resulting impact to the business. The communication was affective because during verbal communication the voices of the speakers were very clear. It was noted that audience did not ask for repetition of what was spoken or seeking clarifications from the speaker. The channels of communication used by various workers, employees and management where delivered the intended messages to the audience. Organizational communication aimed at using communication to improve employee productivity and awareness of their products and services to the potential customers. The communication channels were very effective in meeting the firm’s objectives because most of the targets were achieved (Lasater, 2010). In the organization emails and company’s website were very reliable channels of communication that most workers preferred. Most messages used appropriate language to improve clarity and understandability by the audience. The messages are direct, memorable and honest hence the audience was keen in understanding the content, which is the organization’s goal. The messages helped employees to be associated by the firm because the messages contain common terminologies that show workers that managers understand their job roles,Show MoreRelatedEffective Workplace Communication1336 Words   |  6 PagesListening and Effective Workplace Communication James Humes, a former presidential speech writer, stated that, the art of communication is the language of leadership (Leading Thoughts, 2010). 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They can be your family, friends, colleagues or even strangersRead MoreEffective Communication For The Workplace950 Words   |  4 Pages Someone once said great communication is a skill that is needed in life. I believe great communication can take an individual very far in life. Effective communication helps connect with people. It can open many doors for many jobs. It lets the employer know whom they have hired, and how intelligent the person really is. In the business profession, effective communication enables managers to give understandable instructions to their employees. Effective communication will help state what is expectedRead MoreEffective Communication Within A Workplace854 Words   |  4 PagesCommunication skills are very important no matter where or who you are. Communication within a workplace can determine whether a business or individual is successful or not. Understanding eff ective communication in a medical setting helps hospitals and doctor offices develop a work environment that is able to communicate effectively with coworker, patients and doctors in order to take of the patients needs. Listening, clarity and Patience are three main keys to effective communication within aRead MoreEffective Communication in the Workplace Essay1300 Words   |  6 PagesEffective Communication in the Workplace The workplace is an environment where more and more Americans are spending significant portions of their time. In fact, 25 million workers reported spending at least 49 hours a week at work, (Schabner, 2013). This means that having effective communication in the workplace is becoming increasingly important. Not just to improve business practices, but to improve the quality of both employer AND employee satisfaction. Effective interpersonal communicationRead MoreWorkplace Literacy and Effective Communication1270 Words   |  6 PagesWorkplace Literacy and Effective Communication Recently, there has been a poorly written communication in the workplace, which has led to some hurt feelings, lower morale and possible loss of business. As a corporation, we have worked very hard to maintain the synergy though out our work environment. These latest events are starting to compromise multiple aspects of our company. First, we are losing control and perspective of our colleagues. Camaraderie and atmosphere are suffering, placing usRead MoreEffective Communication in the Workplace Essay1220 Words   |  5 PagesCommunication Barriers in the Workplace Communication barriers in the workplace can have a serious effect on the functioning and of an organization. In the following article we shall understand what some of these communication barriers are and how to overcome them. Ads by Google Improve Communication Our NLP Training Program Helps You Overcome Your Fears. Enroll Today! Conflict Management How much is conflict costing you? Assessment, Training, Coaching www.StrategicLeadershipCoachingRead MoreEffective Communication Strategies For Workplace1221 Words   |  5 Pages Effective Communication Strategies for Workplace Conflict Tanya Schankel ORG300 – Applying Leadership Principles Colorado State University – Global Campus Dr. Anne O Bryan June 14, 2015 Effective Communication Strategies for Workplace Conflict Got Conflict? You are not alone. Conflict is a natural part of our lives. It can occur anytime and anywhere, but it is especially prone to raise its ugly head in the workplace when working with a team. We all have unique differences based on ageRead MoreEffective Communication Within The Workplace1848 Words   |  8 Pagesorganisational communication; it is the communication that happens within the organisational, whether it is face to face communication or video conferences communication. It is important to note that if organisations do not communicate the right information, in the right way, to the right people, at the right time, this could create problems and have an impact on the level of effectiveness and efficiency. In essence, there is therefore a need for effective communication within the workplace. If thereRead MoreCommunication For Effective Leadership At The Workplace859 Words   |  4 PagesCommunication for Effective Leadership Everyday in the workplace a person must interact with others in various forms of communication to complete their day. A leader must be able to strategically communicate with their employees, as well as overcome any communication barriers, in order to achieve a high-performance rate in the workplace. An example of a scenario that requires diplomatic communication, in my case, is a loss of work ethic amongst team members. Communication Strategies Communication

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Succubus Revealed Chapter 1 Free Essays

string(30) " can do about interest rates\." This wasn’t the first time I’d worn a foil dress. It was, however, the first time I’d done so in a family-friendly setting. â€Å"Vixen!† Santa’s voice rang out above the mall crowd, and I hurried away from where I’d been corralling a group of Burberryclad kids. We will write a custom essay sample on Succubus Revealed Chapter 1 or any similar topic only for you Order Now It wasn’t actually Santa Claus calling me, of course. The man sitting in the holly-and-light-bedecked gazebo was named Walter something-or-other, but he asked that those of us working as his â€Å"elves† refer to him as Santa at all times. Conversely, he had christened all of us with either reindeer or Seven Dwarves names. He took this job very seriously and said the names helped him stay in character. If we questioned that, he’d start regaling us with tales of his extensive career as a Shakespearean actor, one that he claimed had come to an end because of his age. We elves had our own ideas about what might have cut his career short. â€Å"Santa needs another drink,† he told me in a stage whisper, once I reached his side. â€Å"Grumpy won’t get me one.† He inclined his head toward another woman dressed in a green foil dress. She was holding back a squirming boy while Santa and I conducted our conversation. I met her pained expression and then glanced down at my watch. â€Å"Well, Santa,† I said, â€Å"that’s because it’s only been an hour since the last one. You know the deal: one shot in your coffee every three hours.† â€Å"We made that deal a week ago!† he hissed. â€Å"Before the crowds picked up. You have no idea what Santa endures.† I didn’t know if it was part of his acting method or just a personality quirk, but he also referred to himself in the third person a lot. â€Å"A girl just asked for SAT scores good enough to get her into Yale. I think she was nine.† I spared him a moment’s sympathy. The mall where we were earning holiday pay was in one of Seattle’s more affluent suburbs, and the requests he got sometimes went beyond footballs and ponies. The kids also tended to be better dressed than me (when I wasn’t in elf-wear), which was no small feat. â€Å"Sorry,† I said. Tradition or not, I sometimes thought putting children on an old guy’s lap was already creepy enough. We didn’t need to mix alcohol into it. â€Å"The deal stands.† â€Å"Santa can’t take much more of this!† â€Å"Santa’s got four hours left of his shift,† I pointed out. â€Å"I wish Comet was still here,† he said petulantly. â€Å"She was much more lenient with the drinks.† â€Å"Yes. And I’m sure she’s drinking alone right now, seeing as she’s unemployed.† Comet, a former elf, had been generous with Santa’s shots and also partaken of them herself. Since she was half his weight, though, she hadn’t held her liquor as well and had lost her job when mall officials caught her taking off her clothes in The Sharper Image. I gave a curt nod to Grumpy. â€Å"Go ahead.† The little boy hurried forward and climbed onto Santa’s lap. To his credit, Santa switched into character and didn’t pester me (or the boy) further about a drink. â€Å"Ho ho ho! What would you like for this nondenominational winter holiday season?† He even affected a slight British accent, which wasn’t really necessary for the role but certainly made him seem more authoritative. The boy regarded Santa solemnly. â€Å"I want my dad to move back home.† â€Å"Is that your father?† asked Santa, looking toward a couple standing near Grumpy. The woman was pretty and blond, with the look of someone in her thirties who’d been preemptively hitting the Botox. If the guy she was plastered all over was old enough to be out of college, I would have been very surprised. â€Å"No,† said the boy. â€Å"That’s my mom and her friend Roger.† Santa was silent for a few moments. â€Å"Is there anything else you’d like?† I left them to it and returned to my post near the line’s start. Evening was wearing on, increasing the number of families turning out. Unlike Santa’s, my shift ended in less than an hour. I could get in a little shopping time and miss the worst of the commuting traffic. As an official mall employee, I got a considerable discount, which made drunken Santas and foil dresses that much easier to bear. One of the greatest things about the happiest time of the year was that all the department stores had extensive cosmetics and fragrance gift sets out right now, gift sets that desperately needed a home in my bathroom. â€Å"Georgina?† My dreams of sugarplums and Christian Dior were interrupted by the sound of a familiar voice. I turned and felt my heart sink as I met the eyes of a pretty middle-aged woman with cropped hair. â€Å"Janice, hey. How’s it going?† My former co-worker returned my stiff smile with a puzzled one. â€Å"Fine. I . . . I didn’t expect to see you here.† I also hadn’t expected to be seen here. It was one of the reasons I’d chosen to work outside the city, to specifically avoid anyone from my old job. â€Å"Likewise. Don’t you live in Northgate?† I tried not to make it sound like an accusation. She nodded and rested her hand on the shoulder of a small, dark-haired girl. â€Å"We do, but my sister lives over here, and we thought we’d visit her after Alicia talks to Santa.† â€Å"I see,† I said, feeling mortified. Wonderful. Janice was going to go back to Emerald City Books and Cafe and tell everyone that she’d spotted me dressed as an elf. Not that that could make things worse, I supposed. Everyone there already thought I was the Whore of Babylon. It was why I’d quit a few weeks ago. What was an elf dress on top of that? â€Å"Is this Santa any good?† asked Alicia impatiently. â€Å"The one I saw last year didn’t get me what I wanted.† Over the buzzing of the crowd, I just barely heard Santa saying, â€Å"Well, Jessica, there’s not much Santa can do about interest rates. You read "Succubus Revealed Chapter 1" in category "Essay examples"† I turned back to Alicia. â€Å"It kind of depends on what you want,† I said. â€Å"How did you end up here?† asked Janice, with a small frown. She actually sounded concerned, which I supposed was better than her gloating. I had a feeling there were a number of people at the bookstore who would have loved the idea of me suffering – not that this job was so bad. â€Å"Well, this is just temporary, obviously,† I explained. â€Å"It gives me something to do while I interview for others, and I get a mall discount. And really, it’s just another form of customer service.† I was trying hard not to sound defensive or desperate, but with each word, the intensity of how much I missed my old job hit me more and more. â€Å"Oh, good,† she said, looking slightly relieved. â€Å"I’m sure you’ll find something soon. Looks like the line’s moving.† â€Å"Wait, Janice?† I caught hold of her arm before she could walk away. â€Å"How . . . how’s Doug?† I’d left behind a lot of things at Emerald City: a position of power, a warm atmosphere, unlimited books and coffee . . . But as much as I missed all of those things, I didn’t miss them as much as I missed a single person: my friend Doug Sato. He, more than anything, was what had spurred me to leave. I hadn’t been able to handle working with him anymore. It had been terrible, seeing someone I care about so much regard me with such contempt and disappointment. I’d had to get away from that and felt I’d made the right choice, but it was still hard losing someone who’d been a part of my life for the last five years. Janice’s smile returned. Doug had that effect on people. â€Å"Oh, you know. He’s Doug. The same, wacky Doug. Band’s going strong. And I think he might get your job. Er, your old job. They’re interviewing for it.† Her smile faded, as though she suddenly realized that might cause me discomfort. It didn’t. Not much. â€Å"That’s great,† I said. â€Å"I’m happy for him.† She nodded and told me good-bye before hurrying forward in line. Behind her, a family of four paused in their frantic texting on identical cell phones to glare at me for the holdup. A moment later, they hunched back down again, no doubt telling all their Twitter friends about every inane detail of their holiday mall experience. I put on a cheery smile that didn’t reflect what I felt inside and continued helping with the line until Sneezy, my replacement, showed up. I got him up to speed on Santa’s drinking schedule and then abandoned the holiday nexus for the mall’s back offices. Once inside a bathroom, I shape-shifted out of the foil dress, trading it for a much more tasteful sweater and jeans combo. I even made the sweater blue so that there would be no confusion. I was off the holiday clock. Of course, as I walked back through the mall, I couldn’t help but notice I was never off the clock for my main job: being a succubus in the illustrious service of Hell. Centuries of corruption and seduction of souls had given me a sixth sense for spotting those most vulnerable to my charms. The holidays, while ostensibly being a time of cheer, also tended to bring out the worst in people. I could spot the desperation everywhere – those hoping to frantically find the perfect gifts to win over the ones they loved, those dissatisfied with their ability to provide for their loved ones, those dragged along on shopping trips to create a â€Å"perfect† holiday experience they had no interest in. . . . Yes, it was everywhere if you knew how to look for it: that sorrow and frustration tucked in amongst the joy. Those were exactly the kinds of souls that were ripe for the taking. I could have picked off any number of guys if I wanted to tonight and taken care of my quota f or the week. My brief exchange with Janice had left me feeling strange, however, and I couldn’t muster the energy to go strike up a conversation with some discontent suburban businessman. Instead, I consoled myself with impulse purchases for myself and even found a couple of much-needed gifts for others, proving that I wasn’t totally and completely selfish. By the time I left, I felt confident traffic had died down and would give me an easy drive back to the city. As I walked past the center of the mall, I heard Santa ho-ho-ho-ing loudly while waving his arms energetically around, much to the terror of a small child on his lap. My guess was that someone had cracked and broken the drinking rule. On the way home, I noticed I had three voice mail messages, all from my friend Peter. Before I could even attempt to listen to them, the phone rang. â€Å"Hello?† â€Å"Where are you?† Peter’s frantic voice filled up the small space of my Passat. â€Å"In my car. Where are you?† â€Å"At my apartment. Where else? Everyone’s here!† â€Å"Everyone? What are you talking about?† â€Å"Did you forget? Damn it, Georgina. You were a lot more punctual when you were unhappy and single.† I ignored the jab and scanned through my mental calendar. Peter was one of my best friends. He was also a neurotic, obsessive compulsive vampire who loved hosting dinners and parties. He usually managed to throw something together at least once a week, never for the same reason, so it was easy to lose track. â€Å"It’s fondue night,† I said at last, proud of myself for remembering. â€Å"Yes! And the cheese is getting cold. I’m not made of Sterno, you know.† â€Å"Why didn’t you just start eating?† â€Å"Because we’re civilized.† â€Å"Debatable.† I pondered whether I wanted to go or not. Part of me really just wanted to get home and snuggle with Seth, but I had a feeling he’d be working. I likely couldn’t expect snuggling for a while, whereas I could appease Peter right now. â€Å"Fine. Start without me, and I’ll be there soon. I’m just getting off the bridge now.† Wistfully, I drove past Seth’s exit and instead set my sights on the one that would take me to Peter’s place. â€Å"Did you remember to bring wine?† he asked. â€Å"Peter, until a minute ago, I didn’t even remember I was supposed to be at your place. Do you really need wine?† I’d seen Peter’s wine cabinet. On any given day, he had a dozen each of reds and whites, both domestic and international. â€Å"I don’t want to run out of the good stuff,† he said. â€Å"I seriously doubt you’re going to – wait. Is Carter there?† â€Å"Yes.† â€Å"Okay. I’ll pick up some wine.† I showed up at his apartment ten minutes later. His roommate and apprentice, Cody, opened the door and gave me a broad, fang-filled smile. Light, music, and the scent of fondue and potpourri washed over me. Their home put Santa’s gazebo to shame and had decorations filling every square inch. And not just Christmas ones. â€Å"Since when do you guys have a menorah?† I asked Cody. â€Å"Neither of you are Jewish.† â€Å"Well, we’re not Christian either,† he pointed out, leading me toward the dining room. â€Å"Peter wanted to take a multicultural slant this year. The guestroom is all done in Kwanza decorations, if you know someone looking for a truly tacky overnight experience.† â€Å"It is not tacky!† Peter stood up from a table where our other immortal friends sat around two tubs of melted cheese. â€Å"I can’t believe you’re so insensitive to other people’s religious views. Jesus Christ! Is that boxed wine?† â€Å"You said you wanted wine,† I reminded him. â€Å"I wanted good wine. Please tell me it’s not blush.† â€Å"Of course it’s blush. And you didn’t tell me to bring good wine. You said you were worried Carter would drink all your good wine. So I brought this for him instead. Your wine is safe.† At the mention of his name, the only heavenly creature in the room looked up. â€Å"Sweet,† he said, accepting the box from me. â€Å"Santa’s little helper delivers.† He opened up the box’s dispenser and looked at Peter expectantly. â€Å"Do you have a straw?† I sat in an empty seat beside my boss, Jerome, who was contentedly dipping a piece of bread in molten cheddar. He was the archdemon of all of Seattle and chose to walk the earth looking like a circa 1990 John Cusack, which made it easy to forget his true nature sometimes. Fortunately, his brimstone personality always came out the instant he opened his mouth. â€Å"You’re here less than a minute, Georgie, and already you’ve made this get-together fifty percent less classy.† â€Å"You guys are eating fondue on a Tuesday night,† I retorted. â€Å"You were well on your way without me.† Peter had settled himself back down and was trying to appear calm. â€Å"Fondue is very classy. It’s all in the presentation. Hey! Where’d you get that?† Carter had set the wine box on his lap, dispenser on top, and was now drinking from it with an enormous straw that I suspected had been literally conjured from thin air. â€Å"At least he’s not doing that with a bottle of Pinot Noir,† I told Peter good-naturedly. I helped myself to a fondue fork and speared a piece of apple. On the other side of Jerome, Hugh busily typed away on his phone’s keyboard, reminding me of the family at the mall. â€Å"Telling the world about this lowbrow party?† I teased. Hugh was an imp, a type of hellish administrative assistant, so he could have actually been buying or selling souls via his phone for all I knew. â€Å"Of course,† said Hugh, not looking up. â€Å"I’m updating Facebook. Do you know why Roman won’t answer my friend request?† â€Å"No clue,† I said. â€Å"I’ve barely spoken to him in days.† â€Å"When I talked to him earlier, he said he had to work tonight,† Peter explained, â€Å"but that we should go ahead and draw for him.† â€Å"Draw?† I asked uneasily. â€Å"Oh Lord. Tell me it’s not Pictionary night too.† Peter sighed wearily. â€Å"Draw for Secret Santas. Do you even read the e-mails I send?† â€Å"Secret Santas? Seems like we just did that,† I said. â€Å"Yeah, a year ago,† said Peter. â€Å"Just like we do every Christmas.† I glanced over at Carter who was quietly drinking his wine. â€Å"Did you lose my hat? You look like you could use one.† The angel’s chin-length, blond hair was even more unkempt than usual. â€Å"Tell us what you really think, Georgina,† he replied. He ran a hand over his hair, but it somehow only made things worse. â€Å"I’m saving it for a special occasion.† â€Å"If I get your name again, I’ll buy you two hats so you don’t have to ration yourself.† â€Å"I wouldn’t want you to go to the trouble.† â€Å"No trouble at all. I get a discount at the mall.† Jerome sighed and set down his fork. â€Å"Are you still doing that, Georgie? Don’t I suffer enough without having to endure the humiliation of a succubus who moonlights as a Christmas elf?† â€Å"You always said I should quit the bookstore and find something else to do,† I reminded him. â€Å"Yes, but that was because I thought you’d go on to do something respectable. Like become a stripper or the mayor’s mistress.† â€Å"This is just temporary.† I handed Carter the elegant crystal wineglass that had been sitting by my plate. He filled it with wine from the box and gave it back. Peter groaned and muttered something about despoiling Tiffany’s. â€Å"Georgina doesn’t need material things anymore,† teased Cody. â€Å"She’s paid in love now.† Jerome fixed the young vampire with a cold stare. â€Å"Do not ever say anything that saccharine again.† â€Å"You’re one to talk,† I said to Cody, unable to hide my smile. â€Å"I’m surprised you could drag yourself away from Gabrielle tonight.† His face immediately grew dreamy at the mention of his ladylove. â€Å"That makes two of us,† observed Peter. He shook his head bitterly. â€Å"You guys and your perfect love lives.† â€Å"Hardly perfect,† I said at the same time Cody said, â€Å"It is perfect.† All eyes fell on me. Hugh even looked up from his phone. â€Å"Trouble in paradise?† â€Å"Why do you always assume that? And no, of course not,† I scoffed, hating myself for the slip. â€Å"Things are fantastic with Seth.† And they were. Just speaking his name sent a flood of joy through me. Seth. Seth was what made everything worthwhile. My relationship with him was what had caused the rift between me and my former co-workers at the bookstore. They saw me as the reason for his breakup with Doug’s sister. Which, I suppose, I was. But no matter how much I’d loved that job, giving it up was a small price to pay to be with Seth. I could endure being an elf. I could endure the quotas he and I put on our sex life, to ensure my succubus powers didn’t suck him dry. With him, I could handle anything. Even a future of damnation. There were just a couple of teeny-tiny things about my relationship with Seth that gave me pause. One had been eating at me for a while, one I kept trying to ignore. But now, suddenly, with my immortal friends watching me, I finally drummed up the courage to address it. â€Å"It’s just . . . I don’t suppose any of you told Seth my name, did you?† Seeing Peter open his mouth in confusion, I immediately amended, â€Å"My real name.† â€Å"Why would that ever come up?† asked Hugh dismissively, returning to his texting. â€Å"I don’t even know your real name,† said Cody. â€Å"Are you saying it’s not Georgina?† I regretted the words already. It was a stupid thing for me to worry about, and their reactions were just proving that point. â€Å"Do you not want him to know your name?† asked Hugh. â€Å"No . . . it’s fine. I just, well. It’s just weird. A month or so ago, when he was half-asleep, he called me by it. Letha,† I added, for Cody’s benefit. I managed to say the name without tripping over it. It wasn’t a name I welcomed. I’d shed it centuries ago, when I became a succubus, and had been taking assumed names ever since. In banishing that name, I’d banished that former life. I’d wanted to erase it so badly that I’d sold my soul in exchange for everyone I’d known forgetting I existed. That was why the conversation with Seth had totally blindsided me. There was no way he could’ve known that name. You are the world, Letha . . . he had told me drowsily. He hadn’t even remembered saying it, let alone where he’d heard it. Don’t know, he’d told me, when I questioned him about it later. Greek myths, I guess. The River Lethe, where the dead go to wash away the memories from their souls . . . to forget the past. . . . â€Å"That’s a pretty name,† said Cody. I shrugged noncommittally. â€Å"The point is, I never told it to Seth. But somehow, he knew it. He couldn’t remember anything about it, though. Where he heard it.† â€Å"He must have heard it from you,† said Hugh, ever practical. â€Å"I never told him. I’d remember if I had.† â€Å"Well, with all the other immortals traipsing through here, I’m sure it came up from one of them. He probably overheard it.† Peter frowned. â€Å"Don’t you have an award with your name on it? Maybe he saw that.† â€Å"I don’t really leave my ‘Best Succubus’ award lying around,† I pointed out. â€Å"Well, you should,† said Hugh. I eyed Carter carefully. â€Å"You’re being awfully quiet.† He paused in drinking from the wine box. â€Å"I’m busy.† â€Å"Did you tell Seth my name? You’ve called me it before.† Carter, despite being an angel, seemed to have a genuine affection for us damned souls. And like an elementary school boy, he often thought the best way of showing that affection was by picking on us. Calling me Letha – when he knew I hated it – and other pet names was one such tactic he used. Carter shook his head. â€Å"Sorry to disappoint you, Daughter of Lilith, but I never told him. You know me: model of discretion.† There was a slurping sound as he neared the wine’s end. â€Å"Then how did Seth find out?† I demanded. â€Å"How’d he know the name? Someone must have told him.† Jerome sighed loudly. â€Å"Georgie, this conversation is even more ridiculous than the one about your job. You already got your answer: either you or someone else slipped up and doesn’t remember. Why does everything have to be so dramatic for you? Are you just looking for something to be unhappy about?† He had a point. And honestly, I didn’t know why this had bugged me so much for so long. Everyone was right. There was no mystery here, nothing earth-shattering. Seth had overheard my name somewhere, end of story. There was no reason for me to overreact or assume the worst – only a tiny, nagging voice in my head that refused to forget about that night. â€Å"It’s just weird,† I said lamely. Jerome rolled his eyes. â€Å"If you want something to worry about, then I’ll give you something.† All thoughts of Seth and names flew out of my head. Everyone at the table (except Carter, who was still slurping) froze and stared at Jerome. When my boss said he had something for you to worry about, there was a strong possibility it meant something fiery and terrifying. Hugh looked startled by this proclamation too, which was a bad sign. He usually knew about hellish mandates before Jerome did. â€Å"What’s going on?† I asked. â€Å"I had a drink with Nanette the other night,† he growled. Nanette was Portland’s archdemoness. â€Å"Bad enough she still won’t let me forget the summoning. She was also going off on some bullshit about how her people were more competent than mine.† I glanced briefly at my friends. We weren’t exactly model employees of Hell, so there was a very good chance that Nanette was right. Not that any of us would tell Jerome that. â€Å"So,† he continued, â€Å"when I denied it, she demanded we step up and prove what superior Hellish minions we are.† â€Å"How?† asked Hugh, looking mildly interested. â€Å"With a soul pledge drive?† â€Å"Don’t be ridiculous,† said Jerome. â€Å"Then with what?† I asked. Jerome gave us a tight-lipped smile. â€Å"With bowling.† How to cite Succubus Revealed Chapter 1, Essay examples

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

SEM and Irrationality

Question: Write an essay on Real Life Example of Irrationality Based On SEM? Answer: Real Life Example of Irrationality Based On SEM: The peoples behavior is assessed in all parts of economics. In this regard behavioral economics plays an important role. It studies the repercussion of psychological, social, cognitive and emotional factors on the economic decisions of the economic agents. The Standard Neo Classical Economic Model (SEM) assumes that the behavior of the economic agents is rational and is not dependent on emotion or bias. The economic agent is believed to place fair, equitable and reasonable value on the goods and products related to investment and in all these behavior the individual must drive towards maximizing utility. The main assumption of the SEM is that people are rational. In addition to this people make economic decision when they are fully aware of all the available options, people can always rank their options based on their preferences in a consistent manner and people select that option which is best for them and gives them maximum utility. The three vital assumptions or principles of SEM are: (Baddeley, 2013) Economic agents maximize profits and utility- when multiple alternatives are available to an economic agent he chooses that outcome that possibly maximizes his utility function. This is explained by SEM as the preference and advantage received from consuming a good is not only in terms of monetary profits but also other benefits that explains the satisfaction received from consuming the good or the rise in the stature. The economic decision made by the individuals may be taken under situations of risk. This evaluation requires individual to maximize expected utility based on the expected value. Thus SEM also takes into account the nature of individual and his decision making i.e., the individual can be a risk averse, risk lover or even a risk neutral. (Beckerman, 2011) Economic agents act rationally- behavior of an economic agent is based on rational self-interest according to the fundamental principle of economics. For some human behavior may be inconsistent, inefficient, self centered or humanitarian, but economists argue that human behavior is predictable and his economic decision is based on the costs and benefits of the option available to him. SEM economists are of the view that benefits from charitable instincts or love must not be ignored but there remains an expectation that people will engage themselves in a rational decision making system. Then they can be called Homo economicus, who possess a well-organized, reliable and anchored list of preferences. The logical computational skill that the Homo economicus utilizes to evaluate different series of action also allow him to choose the highest and maximized preference and outcomes. Economic agents act on the basis of full and relevant information- SEM expects that the individuals not only make choices on the basis of their preferences but also based on the full information. By the availability of full information individuals are able to take rational decisions analyzing its impact on the future. For example, consider the rational expectation theory when anticipating the inflation rate for the future. This theory explains that how the mechanism of determining future inflation rate takes into account all the factors that affect the inflation rate in the future like money supply, oil prices, exchange rate and labor market conditions. Based on the three important assumptions of the SEM, we can now establish the fact that individuals are able to make rational decision. (Opaluch and Segerson, 2015) People customarily tend to make irrational choices thinking that their choices are rational. There are several examples of irrational behavior that explains such irrational behavior. One of the reasons behind this is that most of the people lack full knowledge regarding their own choices. Or in other cases, their choices strongly depend on the recollection or interpretation drawn from their past experiences. The irrational behavior impacts the individuals in a way that they imbibe short term satisfaction and experience loss in the long term. These individuals do not make their choices based on forecasting their future loss, cost, gain and benefit. In this way they fail to maximize their utility. A case that reflects irrationality in humans is based on Jac who is a coffee addict and was a regular visitor to the Dunkin Donuts. (Mullins, 2009) But with the behemoth of coffee outlets at every corner of the streets, his choice regarding the purchase of coffee changed. This apparently explains the success of Starbucks. Starbucks is believed to sell coffee at a higher rate which the people tend to purchase. One thing that needs to be mentioned is the anchor price regarding coffee for individual who loves coffee. Before visiting Starbucks, Jac was convinced with the anchor pricing strategy and had set a price for coffee in his minds from which he never budged. But what happened that his preference changed irrationally depend on the strategy that Starbucks applied making the customers forget about the concept of anchor prices. When I confronted Jac with the question that why did he go for Starbucks leaving behind his anchor price, his answer was clear. He answered by ranking the supe rior experience that he received from Starbucks by which he never really compared Dunkin Donuts and Starbucks coffee. (People Great Ideas, 2015) Jac gradually changed his anchor price which was low and set another new anchor price that were based on the prices charged by Starbucks. I found this behavior irrational. He now moved and shifted onto a new consumption curve where the anchor price is much higher. (Giang, 2012) Considering the SEM, Jac violated the first assumption that states that individual makes decisions based on their profit and utility maximization. But in this case Jac has definitely maximized his utility but failed to maximize his profits. Profits are based on the cost that he bears, which has increased because of a rise in price of coffee from Dunkin Donuts to Starbucks. Jac must not only aim to maximize his satisfaction but also must look out for his pocket. But setting a higher anchor price, Jac has behaved irrationally. (GAUDIO, 2003) Second assumption signifies individuals as Homo economicus where they are expected to make decisions based on their highest and maximized anchored preferences. Jac from the very beginning depicted an irrational behavior by preferring the Starbucks coffee which a much higher price. Though several surveys reveal that Starbucks stood high in terms of quality and experience of customers yet their pricing strategy seemed to be quite expensive. Jac has depicted that irrational behavior in which he did not consider the future costs and benefits related to the current purchase. (Salim Khraim, 2011)Thirdly, Jac had never acquired full information while making the choice of coffee. (Kacen and Lee, 2002)Starbucks is not the only one caf outlet that offers high quality coffee. There are several other coffee outlets that offer best coffee with reasonable price. Thus, Jac has engaged himself in short term utility sacrificing the long term benefits that he would get on selection of coffee at cheap rates from other coffee outlets. (some outlets are Curators Coffee Studio, FreeState Coffee etc. in London). (Time Out London, 2015) A study based on the brand effects of Starbucks reveals that the effect of brand of Starbucks had affected the Danish consumers preferences towards coffee in a positive way. The price that Starbucks charged could not be explained by this study but what can be concluded from the study is that individuals are repeatedly making irrational choices which are result of the brand value of Starbucks. Individuals generally believe in their choices to be rational. A coffee with brand value and higher price is preferred by individuals rather than coffee with no brand values and low price. This explains the irrationality in consumers. (Bouzidi, 2015) One of the important case studies by Sara Jasmine Ghafoorzadeh on Starbucks shows that again the brand value that led to the customers loyalty regarding the consumption of their coffee in spite of high price. Starbucks believes that there is a strong relation between the customer loyalty and the brand experience that can drive their sales up. But this type of strategy affects the ethical decision making of the consumers. They are repeatedly and alarmingly making irrational decision regarding purchasing goods. (Ghafoorzadeh, 2015) From the essay what we learn is that economic agents unconsciously engage in irrational behavior but what they pose is as if they are behaving rationally which led to diminishing future benefits. This is because most of the people tend to engage in short term pleasure rather than long term gains. In the case of Jac, Starbucks coffee may have strained his pocket but his opinion about making irrational choices distinctly depended on the brand value of Starbucks. Thus, we see that Jac has successfully violated the assumptions of the SEM and can be declared as an irrational human beings. The irrational behavior can also be witnessed in the investing markets where the investors also engage in irrational behavior(Lin, Tsai and Lung, 2013). One of the other industry that fools consumers and force them behave irrationally is the mobile industry in which individuals purchase such mobiles phones that are called smartphones at higher price when other ordinary mobiles operates in an identical ma nner. (Law and McNeish, 2007)The choice of the human beings on spending more on certain objects which functions in the same manner as the ones which are cheaper explains irrationality. (Camerer, Loewenstein and Rabin, 2004) References Baddeley, M. (2013).Behavioural economics and finance. London: Routledge. Beckerman, W. (2011).Economics as applied ethics. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. Bouzidi, I. (2015).Starbucks brand effects - distinguishing unconscious wanting` and conscious liking in consumers choice of coffee brand. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: [Accessed 9 Mar. 2015]. Camerer, C., Loewenstein, G. and Rabin, M. (2004).Advances in behavioral economics. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. GAUDIO, R. (2003). Coffeetalk: Starbucks and the commercialization of casual conversation.Lang. Soc., 32(05). Ghafoorzadeh, S. (2015).Customers' Loyalty Brand Experience Branding Strategy to Successfully Approach Consumers' Minds and Promote Customers' Loyalty: Generating the Brand Experience.. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: [Accessed 9 Mar. 2015]. Giang, V. (2012).12 Ways That People Behave Irrationally. [online] Business Insider. Available at: [Accessed 9 Mar. 2015]. Kacen, J. and Lee, J. (2002). The Influence of Culture on Consumer Impulsive Buying Behavior.Journal of Consumer Psychology, 12(2), pp.163-176. Law, A. and McNeish, W. (2007). Contesting the New Irrational Actor Model: A Case Study of Mobile Phone Mast Protest.Sociology, 41(3), pp.439-456. Lin, W., Tsai, S. and Lung, P. (2013). Investors' Herd Behavior: Rational or Irrational?.Asia-Pacific Journal of Financial Studies, 42(5), pp.755-776. Mullins, C. (2009). Supply and demand in the decision-making process of pharmaceutical consumers: The starbucks versus dunkin' donuts dilemma.Clinical Therapeutics, 31(8), p.1858. Opaluch, J. and Segerson, K. (2015).Rational Roots of Irrational Behavior: New Theories of Economic Decision-Making. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: [Accessed 9 Mar. 2015]. People Great Ideas, (2015).Super Bowl Coffee Smackdown: Seattle's Starbucks vs. New England's Dunkin' Donuts. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9 Mar. 2015]. Salim Khraim, H. (2011). The Influence of Brand Loyalty on Cosmetics Buying Behavior of UAE Female Consumers.IJMS, 3(2). Time Out London, (2015).London's best cafs and coffee shops. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9 Mar. 2015].

Wednesday, April 1, 2020

The Dorset Landscape Field Analysis

Overview of the Dorset Landscape The uniqueness of the Dorset landscape lies in its landscape variety, quality, and character. This diversity is caused by such physical and natural factors as geology, climate, and soils.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on The Dorset Landscape: Field Analysis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The physical framework has been shaped in the course of long history of human activities that has created the landscape we see today (The Dorset Landscape n. d). The diversity ranges from the geological importance and large-scale of an 87 mile coastline to the diversity of biological species inhabiting the area (Roberts 1995). In general, the geological and archaeological environment consists of chalk ridge, chalk valley, clay valley, heath mosaic, harbor and lagoon, limestone hills and plateau, lowland heathland, rolling vales and wooded pasture, valley pasture, undulating river valley, and, fi nally, wooded chalk down land (Howard 2011). Each of the above-presented characteristics will be considered below to describe such sites as the Crandborne Chase, the Dorset Cursus, Hambledon Hill, the Roman Road, Pond barrow, and Down Farm. Description of Sites The Neolithic Dorset Cursus The Neolithic Dorset cursus is a monument spreading across six miles of Chranbone Chase down land in eastern part of Dorset. It is considered one of the largest sites that stretches through chalk lands and it is composed originally of two parallel lines with 90 meters between those that run northwest-southwest (The Megalithic Portal n. d.). The modern appearance of cursus is viewed as a pair of soil marks; however, some of genuine earthworks remain with adjacent barrows.Advertising Looking for report on archeology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In 1973, it was suggested that the Dorset Cursus had been created as an astronomical observatory to define the alignments between specific mounds and the Cursus. The archaeologist also discovered that five of the presented lines bore astronomical importance and that the northern boundary of the Cursus had been built between the crossed alignments (Castleden 1992). The alignment extends from the Bottlebush terminal and spreads up to the long barrow, forming a distinguished skyline feature on Gussage Cow Down (Barrett 1991). This position was chosen to achieve the visual effect. At this point, the scholars put forward the hypothesis that the choice created the possibility to observe the midwinter sun setting behind the hills. The Cranborne Chase The Cranborne Chase is part of the English Chalk Formation that is located near Salisbury Plain. The sharp slope of the plateau borders on the Blackmore Vale to the west and Vale of Wardour to the north (Nunn n. d.). To the south, the chalk plateau is characterized by rounded downs with dry valleys and steeply cut combs (Nunn n. d.). Bowd en (1991, p. 103) writes, â€Å"the inhabitants of the Chase were not only forbidden to harm the deer directly but were also prevented from undertaking any activity which might damage the ‘vert’, the vegetation on and in which the deer lived†. The terminal alignments are difficult to identity accurately.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on The Dorset Landscape: Field Analysis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The external boundaries involves an area that stretches from Shaftesbury to Ringwood and from Salisbury to Blandford Forum. The inner boundaries spread from Compton Abbas to the west to Woodyates to the east, which is adjacent with Ox Drove (Bowden 1991). Excavations in Cranborne Chase were conducted by Pitt Rives, whose military background greatly influenced his ability regularly record the information about surveys and results of fieldwork (Lucas 2001). In general, the area is covered with Iron Age hill forts, boundary dykes, burial mounds, and field systems, indicating the historic evidence. The Hambledon Hill The Hambledon hilltop is surrounded by the Iron Age earthwork, and it possesses complex and extensive Neolithic features. Therefore, the site is considered to be one of the major archaeological spots for the researchers. The grassland is of the main interest to the archaeologists; however, there are territories of mixed scrub and yew wood (Natural Land n. d.). The land stretches fifteen kilometers to the south of Gilligham and seven kilometers to the south of Blandford Forum, which is between Iwerne Courtney and Child Okeford. Hambledon Hill is a chalk hill with three spurs and giant furrows. Edmonds (1999, p. 1) focuses on the â€Å"barrows, stone circles and great chalk banks; ruins already scarred by collectors and by scientific interest†. The view from the dome is one â€Å"to sooth the soul and replenish the energy stores, which is just as well as the walk to the summit is one to tire the legs† (Richards 1999, p. 38). On this territory, the historical evidence points to the military actions during the Civil War in 1645 (Richards 1999, p. 38).Advertising Looking for report on archeology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Roman Road in Britain The Roman Roads in Britain stretch over 13.000 kilometers and were built at the end of the 1st century AD, during the post-settlement period. These military roads were constructed for the army to move materials and men through the lands (Williams 2004). In Dorset land, the road spreads from Hamworthy to Lake, but the original route begins from Julians Bridge and the Lake Gates. The current look of the road involves the pasture with wildlife. Despite the changes, the road maintains its original straightness and continues as a bridleway over a mile, edging with high hedges (Guttridge 2010). Additionally, the Roman road in Dorset is considered to be the finest routes, as well as the most popular part to examine the land between Wyke Down and Oakley Down (Johnston 2002). Pond Barrow The main feature of a pond barrow consists in its bold structure and functions. Their natural landscapes are difficult to define because they are of unimpressive size (Dyer 2001; Lo ngworth 1984). Specifically, pond barrows are composed of a mound encircled by a depression and a rim. The archaeologist managed to discover grave goods and burials beneath the hills and, therefore, it has been suggested that they were not designed for this purpose (Butler n. d.; Grtinsell 1959). Dyer (1990, p. 96) also suggests that the pond barrows were also designed for burying cremations, â€Å"but they have not been much studied and may be adjunct to the funerary ritual rather than actual burial places†. Therefore, the function of these domes is not accurately defined. Conclusion In conclusion, the Dorset Landscape is considered to be one of the most popular historic and archaeological sites that present a bulk of resources, materials, and natural attributes contributing to the historic analysis of the territory (Lane 2010). Its major site include the Dorset Cursus, The Pond Barrow, the Hamdledon Hill, the Cranborne Chase, and the Roman Road in Dorset country. All these historic places are of great aesthetical and natural significance for the United Kingdom and for the region due to the uniqueness of geological, natural and physical characteristics of the landscape. Therefore, this territory is heavily examined by the leading archaeologists to define what historical events influence the modern appearance of the landscape. Reference List Barrett, J. C. 1991, Landscape, Monuments, and Society: The Prehistory of Cranborne Chase. Cambridge University Press, UK. Bowden, M. 1991, Pitt Rivers: The Life and Archaeological Work of Lieutenant-General Augustus Henry Lane Fox Pitt Rivers, Dcl, Frs, Fsa. Cambridge University Press, UK. Butler, A., How to Read Prehistoric Monuments: A Unique Guide to Our Ancient Heritage. Duncan Biard Publishers, UK. Castleden, R. 1992, Neolithic Britain: New Stone Age Sites of England, Scotland, and Wales. Routledge, London. Dyer, J. 2001, Discovering Prehistoric England, Osprey Publishing, UK. Edmonds, M. R. 1999, Ancestral Ge ographies of the Neolithic: Landscape, Monuments, and Memory, Routledge, London. Grtinsell, L. V. 1959, Dorset Barrows, Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, UK. Guttridge, R. 2010, Following in Roman Footsteps, The Dorset Magazine.  Web. Howard, P. J. 2011, Introduction to Landscape, Ashgate Publishing, US. Johnston, D. E. 2002, Discovering Roman Britain, Osprey Publishing, UK. Lane, R. 2010, The Gardens of Dorset. Frances Lincoln, US. Longworth, I. H. 1984, Collared Urns of the Bronze Age in Great Britain and Ireland, CUP Archive, UK. Lucas, G. 2001, Critical Approaches to Fieldwork: Contemporary and Historical Archaeological Practice, Routledge, London. Natural England. Hamdledon Hill NNR. Web. Nunn, L. Cranborne Chase and West Wiltshire Downs.  Web. Richards, A. 2012, Bradt Slow Dorset: Local, Characterful Guides to Britain’s Special Places. Bradt Travel Guides, UK. Roberts, K. 1995, Walking in Dorset, Cicerone Press Limited, UK The Dorset Landscape. Web. The Megalithic Portal.  Dorset Cursus. Web. Williams, B. 2004, Romans in Britain, Jarrold Publishing, UK. This report on The Dorset Landscape: Field Analysis was written and submitted by user Frankl1nR1chards to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Word Choice Defuse vs. Diffuse - Proofread My Papers Academic Blog

Word Choice Defuse vs. Diffuse - Proofread My Papers Academic Blog Word Choice: Defuse vs. Diffuse Even if you have a good level of English, its still easy to use the wrong word by mistake. The most likely culprits are words which sound or look quite similar, which make it crucial to check your work thoroughly before submitting. Today, we explain the difference between the words diffuse and defuse. Defuse (Disarm or Reduce Tension) The literal meaning of defuse is to remove the fuse from something to disarm it, usually a bomb: After receiving a call about a suspicious package, the police moved in to defuse the device. We also use defuse metaphorically to describe reducing tension or anger to calm something or someone down: Dan was getting really angry, but Jane defused the situation. In this sense, we always speak about defusing a situation, never a person. Diffuse (Spread Out) Diffuse is most commonly used to mean spread out or scatter. This can be either as a verb, describing the action of scattering something: The photographer used a special filter to diffuse the light. Or it can be used as an adjective to describe something that has been scattered. Light can be diffused with a filter, for instance: Diffuse light is often used in portrait photography, since it produces fewer shadows. However, diffuse has a similar but more specific meaning in science, where it relates to the process of diffusion: As the dye diffused through the solution, the movement of the particles became clear. It is also possible to use diffuse in relation to speech or writing, where it means lengthy or wordy and often has a negative connotation of being boring: The CEOs speech at the awards ceremony was particularly diffuse. Several people fell asleep. Defuse or Diffuse? As you can see, these terms have very different meanings, so you should try to avoid confusing them in your written work. Thankfully, once you know their definitions, the differences make it easy to tell these words apart. Remember: Defuse = Disarm a bomb/ease a tense situation Diffuse = Spread out/overly long and wordy

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Politics of the Contemporary Middle East Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Politics of the Contemporary Middle East - Essay Example According to the research findings it can therefore be said that amongst the most important elements relative to international relations in the Middle East region following the Gulf War of 1991 was the peace process between the Arabs and Israel that was sponsored by America. The two main parties in the Arab Israeli conflict were Israel and Palestine. The main developments of the peace process were the Oslo Peace Accord, its implementation, the summit at Camp David and the re-escalation of violence. It is evident that the Oslo Peace Process was slated to fail from the beginning because under Likud’s leadership, Israel went back on its words relative to implementing its own obligations emanating from the deal. Upon reading the details of the accord it becomes clear that the Oslo Declarations of Principles never represented a strong foundation for peace between Israel and the PLO. It is widely believed that this happened because preferential treatment was given to Israel in the t reaty. The US is said to have avoided playing an effective and impartial role in brokering the peace agreements. The Soviet Union was an ally of the Palestinians but it was a declining power during the period. The enormous support provided to Israel by the US makes it clearly evident that there was an imbalance of power that served as an obstacle in making the treaty and agreements successful. The paper also presents the main theoretical assumptions of neorealism.... optimize security by maximizing their own military, diplomatic and economic capabilities Peace and order is achieved after states are able to achieve balance of power by effecting deterrence and stable alliances The presence of a dominating state can lead to stability if that state is hegemonic in terms of identifying its self interests with the interests of the larger region or global system The modernization theory originated through the concept of functionalist sociology. It holds that all societies developed from traditional to modern conditions, in terms of transforming from simplistic, narrow and theocratic circumstances to complicated, public and secular forms of organization. It is known that societies undergo different stages of socio economic transformation whereby some manage to modernize faster in view of their interactions and association with modern societies of the west. The theory is applicable to the Middle East region in the context of some states being in a transit ional stage towards modernism. The Postcolonial criticism approach is recent in having its origin in cultural studies. In fact it grew from analysis of the Middle East region as carried out by Edward Said (1978) through his influential work Orientalism, which related to the ways in which a distorted image was created about the Arabs by Europeans in justifying their colonial occupation in the region. This theory holds that politics in the Middle East Region was first characterized by struggle for power control by colonists, then by the super powers during the Cold War and subsequent to 1989, by the US alone. The arguments are based on the belief that nations in the Middle East are dependent or client states that act as agents of Western hegemony or national liberation groups striving to